Sunday, December 20, 2015

This Week in History 12/20 - 12/26

HistoryThis Week in History

by Tamera Lynn Kraft

December 20:
  • A revival broke out among the Shakers igniting a religious fervor among other denominations especially in Kentucky and other colonial frontier regions (1787)
  • Montgomery, Alabama removed race-based seat assignments on its buses (1956)
  • Virginia Company settlers leave London to establish Jamestown, Virginia (1606)
  • 14 republics form Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics - USSR (1922)
  • Frank Capra's It's a Wonderful Life starring James Stewart and Donna Reed premieres in New York (1946)
  • Bob Hope becomes an American citizen (1920)
  • French flag lowered in New Orleans to mark formal transfer of Louisiana Purchase from France to US for 27 million (1803)
  • Grimm's Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm is published (1812)
  • Civil War: South Carolina secedes from the Union (1860)
  • Vietnam War: National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam is formed (1960)
  • Harvey starring James Stewart premieres in New York (1950)
  • Phileas Fogg completes around world trip according to Jules Verne (1892)
  • Thomas Edison privately demonstrated incandescent light at Menlo Park (1879)
  • First successful US cotton mill to spin yarn in Rhode Island (1790)
  • Pneumatic automobile tire patented (1892)
  • WW2: World War II: First battle of the American Volunteer Group, better known as the Flying Tigers, in Kunming, China (1941)
  • Osmond brothers debut on Andy Williams Show (1962)
  • First state anti-lynching statute approved in Georgia (1893)
  • Elvis Presley given draft notice to join US Army for National Service (1957)
  • Archbishop Edmund Grindal challenge Queen Elizabeth when she ordered him to squelch a Puritan movement in England (1576)
  • Missouri imposes a $1 bachelor tax on unmarried men between 21 & 50 (1820)
  • Civil War: Vicksburg Campaign begins (1862)
  • Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II becomes the oldest ever monarch of the United Kingdom, surpassing Queen Victoria, who lived for 81 years, 7 months and 29 days (2007)
  • Broadway lit by electricity, becomes known as "Great White Way" (1880)
  • Baldwin Institute, now known as Baldwin Wallace University, was founded (1845)

December 21:

  • 103 Mayflower pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock (1620)
  • Fox Films signs Shirley Temple, age 5, to a studio contract (1933)
  • John Jay becomes 1st US Secretary of State (1784)
  • Civil War: General Sherman conquers Savannah, Georgia (1864)
  • Walter L. Wilson, founder of Calvary Bible College and pioneer of Christian radio, was converted to Christianity (1896)
  • J. Edgar Hoover deports anarchists/feminist Emma Goldman to Russia (1919)
  • Flying Down to Rio becomes Fred Astaire & Ginger Rogers first movie together (1932)

December 22:
  • Schoenbrunn Village[/caption] Moravian missionary constructs first schoolhouse west of Allegheny in Schoenbrunn Village, Ohio (1772)
  • Continental navy organized with seven ships (1775)
  • Romania ousts communist president Nicolae Ceausescu after police try to arrest a pastor and are stopped by a crowd that grows into a mob and marches to the palace. Many believe this was the first domino in the fall of the USSR. (1989)
  • French officer Alfred Dreyfus court-martialed for treason, triggers worldwide charges of antisemitism. Dreyfus later vindicated. (1894)
  • Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony given world premiere in Vienna (1808)
  • Attendees at a prayer meeting for indigenous causes in the small village of Acteal in the Mexican state of Chiapas are massacred by paramilitary forces (1927)
  • Julie Nixon, daughter of President Nixon, and David Eisenhower, grandson of President Eisenhower, marry each other (1968)
  • Hugh McKail, a Covenanter preacher in Scotland, was martyred by being tortured and hung (1666)
  • Samuel Marsden of the Church Missionary Society arrives in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand to establish the country's first mission station (1814)
  • John Hunt, first missionary to Fiji, arrived on the Fiji Islands (1836)
  • The execution of author Fyodor Dostoevsky is called off at the last second (1849)
  • The first U.S. commercial radio license assigned to a religious broadcaster was awarded to the National Presbyterian Church of Washington, D.C. (1921)
  • First string of Christmas tree lights created by Thomas Edison (1882)

December 23:
  • Revolutionary War: General George Washington resigns his military commission as Commander-in-Chief of the Army to Congress (1783)
  • Visit from St Nicholas by Clement Moore published (1823)
  • Revolutionary War: Thomas Paine writes "These are the times that try men's souls" (1776)
  • Maryland votes to cede a 10 sqaure mile area for District of Columbia (1788)
  • Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold court-martialed for improper conduct (1779)
  • "Emma" By Jane Austen by published (1815)
  • Birth of Jean Francois Champollion, founder of modern Egyptology and man who successfully decoded the hieroglyphics of the Rosetta Stone (1790)
  • Philip of Moscow, leader of the Russian Church, was martyred for speaking out against Ivan the Terrible's mass executions (1569)
  • English astronomer John Flamsteed observes Uranus without realizing it's undiscovered (1690)
  • Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh cuts off his left ear with a razor, and sends it to a prostitute for safe keeping (1888)
  • First Keystone Kops film, entitled Hoffmeyer's Legacy (1912)
  • Birth of Robert Barclay, Scottish Quaker theologian (1648)
  • BBC Radio began daily newscasts (1922)

December 24:
  • Astronauts James A. Lovell, William Anders, and Frank Borman read passages from Genesis to the world as Apollo VIII became the first manned vehicle to circle the moon (1968)
  • Silent Night sung for the very first time at St. Nicholas Church in Austria (1818)
  • The Northside Tabernacle in Chicago was dedicated by evangelist Dwight L. Moody (1871)
  • Fire devastates US Library of Congress in Washington, destroys 35,000 volumes (1851)
  • WW2: FDR appoints General Eisenhower supreme commander of Allied forces
  • Civil War: Several Confederate veterans form Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tennessee (1865)
  • Henry Ford completes his first useful petroleum fueled engine (1893)
  • War of 1812: The Treaty of Peace and Amity between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America is signed by British and American representatives at Ghent, Belgium, ending the war (1814)
  • Irving Fisher patents archiving system with index cards (1912)
  • Methodism was officially organized in the newly-independent United States of America (1784)
  • Americans remembered Iran hostages by shining lights for 417 seconds (1980)
  • WW1: German plane drops bombs on Dover England (1914)

December 25:
  • Christ was born according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus (1 AD)
  • The first recorded celebration of Christmas (336 AD)
  • First known Christmas carol Silent Night, Holy Night sung in Austria (1818)
  • Handel's Messiah, premieres in the US in Boston (1818)
  • Revolutionary War: Washington crosses Delaware where he surprises and defeats 1,400 Hessians (1776)
  • WW1: Legendary Christmas Truce ceased fighting among enemies (1914)
  • Francis of Assisi assembles first Nativity scene Greccio, Italy (1223)
  • Bing Crosby sings White Christmas in public for the first time (1941)
  • The first successful trial run of the system which would become the World Wide Web (1990)
  • Montgomery Ward introduces Rudolph the 9th reindeer (1939)
  • Civil War: President Andrew Johnson grants unconditional pardon to all persons involved in Southern rebellion (1868)
  • Civil War: Christmas for Union soldier Elisha Hunt Rhodes, famous for his diary of the Civil War that span four years (1862)
  • Massachusetts General Court ordered a five shilling fine for "observing any such day as Christmas" (1651)
  • The Dunkards, German Baptists, held their first immersion service in America at Germantown, Pennsylvania (1723)
  • Physician Ephraim McDowell performs the first abdominal surgery in the U.S, an ovariotomy to remove a 22 lb ovarian tumor (1809)
  • First electrically-lit Christmas tree appeared in the White House while Calvin Coolidge was president (1923)
  • Governor William Bradford of Plymouth Colony forbids game playing on Christmas (1621)
  • Clovis, the first French Christian king, and 4,000 of his troops became Christians and were baptized (496 AD)
  • England adopts Julian calendar (597 AD)
  • Astronomer Anders Celsius introduces Centigrade temperature scale (1741)
  • Christmas Island founded and named by Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, the Royal Mary (1643)
December 26:
  • A 9.3 magnitude earthquake creates a tsunami causing devastation in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and many other areas around the rim of the Indian Ocean, killing 230,000 people. (2004)
  • Revolutionary War: General George Washington wins Battle of Trenton after surprise attack on Hessians that were dazed from too much Christmas celebrations (1776)
  • Plymouth Colony was settled by the Mayflower colonists (1620)
  • George Washington is eulogized by Colonel Henry Lee as "First in war, First in peace and First in hearts of his countrymen" (1799)
  • The crimes of Elizabeth B├íthory, the most prolific female serial killer who murdered hundreds of young girls, are uncovered (1620)
  • WW2: Winston Churchill becomes first British Prime Minister to address a joint meeting of the US Congress warning that Axis would "stop at nothing" (1941)
  • Judy Garland, age 2½ and billed as Baby Frances, makes her show business debut (1924)
  • A theater fire in Richmond, Virginia kills the Governor of Virginia George William Smith and the president of the First National Bank of Virginia Abraham B. Venable (1811)
  • WW1: Government takes over US railroads for duration of the war (1917)
* Reprinted from Word Sharpeners with permission

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